Claims that the state should not act on controversial views of the good, but should be neutral among them, are strongly defended by some theorists. They insist that state neutrality, once it is adequately understood, is a central ideal of liberal politics. Supporters of perfectionism, by contrast, argue that governments have a duty to act on the basis of sound views, whether they be controversial or not.
Perfectionism and Value Theory The first thing to say is that an objective account of the good need not make reference to the good of human beings. Some people think that certain aspects of the natural world are valuable and would have value even if no human being existed.
Others believe that great achievements in art and science have value beyond any effect that they have on the lives of human beings. Perfectionist views that affirm judgments of this kind are examples of what can be called nonhumanistic perfectionism.
Perfectionist accounts of the human good, by contrast, are accounts that seek to identify the goods that contribute to the value of a life for human beings.
The good life for human beings can be understood in at least two importantly different ways. On the first understanding, such a life is construed in terms of well-being.
The best life for a human being is a life that goes maximally well for the person who leads it. On the second understanding, the good life for a human being is construed in terms of excellence or success.
An excellent human life could be a life that is best in terms of well-being, but it need not be, for it is possible that such a life requires a human being to make sacrifices in his own well-being for the sake of other persons or goods.
Thus the notion of an excellent human life is broader than that of a life high in well-being. And since it is the broader notion, a general characterization of perfectionism should employ it rather than well-being.
Then, for the perfectionist, if X is good, then it is not good in virtue of the fact that it is desired, or would be desired under appropriate conditions, by human beings.
Likewise, for the perfectionist, if X is good, it does not follow that X must be a pleasant mental state or causally related to one. Perfectionist accounts of the human good, of course, can allow that some goods are experiential, but they reject the hedonistic thesis that all intrinsic human goods consist in pleasurable sensations or attitudes.
Historically, as noted above, perfectionists have related these goods to the development of human nature.
For example, the development of rationality is often considered to be a perfectionist good because it is a capacity essential to human nature. Following Aristotle, a number of contemporary writers have sought to develop accounts of the human good along these lines HurkaFoot We can use the term human nature perfectionism to refer generally to accounts of the human good that relate perfectionist goods to the development of human nature.
Other writers, however, have characterized perfectionism without any reference to human nature. Here it is the existence of the objective goods, and not their relation to the development of human nature, that is highlighted. Similarly, other writers have identified perfectionism with the realization of a specified list of objective goods FinnisGriffinArneson Heroic men, heroic women, and animals.
See also the section The courage of the bullfighters, which includes material on the courage of the rock climbers and mountaineers, including the remarkable achievements of the free climber Alex Honnold.. This is a very varied section, like some other sections of the page.
So much writing in support of bullfighting is suffocating in its exclusion of the. Perfectionism and Neutrality: Essays in Liberal Theory - Ebook written by Klosko, Wall. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices.
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John Stuart Mill (–) was the most famous and influential British philosopher of the nineteenth century.
He was one of the last systematic philosophers, making significant contributions in logic, metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and social theory. perfectionism and neutrality essays in liberal theory Download Book Perfectionism And Neutrality Essays In Liberal Theory in PDF format.
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