Model index

Recently I've been reading drafts of Rest In Practice: Their aim is to explain how to use Restful web services to handle many of the integration problems that enterprises face. At the heart of the book is the notion that the web is an existence proof of a massively scalable distributed system that works really well, and we can take ideas from that to build integrated systems more easily. Steps toward REST To help explain the specific properties of a web-style system, the authors use a model of restful maturity that was developed by Leonard Richardson and explained at a QCon talk.

Model index

According to the Model index theoremfermions respect the Pauli exclusion principle. Each fermion has a corresponding antiparticle. The fermions of the Standard Model are classified according to how they interact or equivalently, by what charges they carry.

There are six quarks updowncharmstrangetopbottomand six leptons electronelectron neutrinomuonmuon neutrinotautau neutrino. Pairs from each classification are grouped together to form a generationwith corresponding particles exhibiting similar physical behavior see table.

The defining property of the quarks is that they carry color chargeand hence interact via the strong interaction.

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A phenomenon called color confinement results in quarks being very strongly bound to one another, forming color-neutral composite particles hadrons containing either a quark and an antiquark mesons or three quarks baryons.

The familiar proton and neutron are the two baryons having the smallest mass. Quarks also carry electric charge and weak isospin.

Hence they interact with other fermions both electromagnetically and via the weak interaction. The remaining six fermions do not carry color charge and are called leptons. The three neutrinos do not carry electric charge either, so their motion is directly influenced only by the weak nuclear forcewhich makes them notoriously difficult to detect.

However, by virtue of carrying an electric charge, the electron, muon, and tau all interact electromagnetically. Each member of a generation has greater mass than the corresponding particles of lower generations.

The first-generation charged particles do not decay, hence all ordinary baryonic matter is made of such particles. Specifically, all atoms consist of electrons orbiting around atomic nucleiultimately constituted of up and down quarks. Second- and third-generation charged particles, on the other hand, decay with very short half-lives and are observed only in very high-energy environments.

Neutrinos of all generations also do not decay and pervade the universe, but rarely interact with baryonic matter.

Gauge bosons[ edit ] The above interactions form the basis of the standard model. Feynman diagrams in the standard model are built from these vertices. Modifications involving Higgs boson interactions and neutrino oscillations are omitted.

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The charge of the W bosons is dictated by the fermions they interact with; the conjugate of each listed vertex i. In the Standard Model, gauge bosons are defined as force carriers that mediate the strong, weak, and electromagnetic fundamental interactions.

Interactions in physics are the ways that particles influence other particles. The Standard Model explains such forces as resulting from matter particles exchanging other particlesgenerally referred to as force mediating particles.

When a force-mediating particle is exchanged, at a macroscopic level the effect is equivalent to a force influencing both of them, and the particle is therefore said to have mediated i. The Feynman diagram calculations, which are a graphical representation of the perturbation theory approximation, invoke "force mediating particles", and when applied to analyze high-energy scattering experiments are in reasonable agreement with the data.

Model index

However, perturbation theory and with it the concept of a "force-mediating particle" fails in other situations. These include low-energy quantum chromodynamicsbound statesand solitons. The gauge bosons of the Standard Model all have spin as do matter particles. The value of the spin is 1, making them bosons.

As a result, they do not follow the Pauli exclusion principle that constrains fermions: The different types of gauge bosons are described below. Photons mediate the electromagnetic force between electrically charged particles. The photon is massless and is well-described by the theory of quantum electrodynamics.The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary was developed in stages throughout the latter half of the 20th century, .

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