Predicting adolescents' intentions to drink alcohol: Outcome expectancies and self-efficacy. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 56,
Origins[ edit ] The initial cause of shyness varies.
Scientists believe that they have located genetic data supporting the hypothesis that shyness is, at least, partially genetic. However, there is also evidence that suggests the environment in which a person is raised can also be responsible for their shyness.
This includes child abuseparticularly emotional abuse such as ridicule. Shyness can originate after a person has experienced a physical anxiety reaction; at other times, shyness seems to develop first and then later causes physical symptoms of anxiety.
Shyness differs from social anxietywhich is a broader, often depression -related psychological condition including the experience of fearapprehension or worrying about being evaluated by others in social situations to the extent of inducing panic.
Shyness may come from genetic traits, the environment in which a person is raised and personal experiences. Shyness may be a personality trait or can occur at certain stages of development in children. Genetics and heredity[ edit ] Shyness is often seen as a hindrance to people and their development.
The cause of shyness is often disputed but it is found that fear is positively related to shyness,  suggesting that fearful children are much more likely to develop being shy as opposed to children less fearful. Shyness can also be seen on a biological level as a result of an excess of cortisol.
Some research has indicated that shyness and aggression are related—through long and short forms of the gene DRD4though considerably more research on this is needed.
Further, it has been suggested that shyness and social phobia the distinction between the two is becoming ever more blurred are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder. As with other studies of behavioral geneticsthe study of shyness is complicated by the number of genes involved in, and the confusion in defining, the phenotype.
Naming the phenotype — and translation of terms between genetics and psychology — also causes problems. Several genetic links to shyness are current areas of research. One is the serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphism 5-HTTLPRthe long form of which has been shown to be modestly correlated with shyness in grade school children.
Progress has been made since then, especially in identifying other potential genes involved in personality traits, but there has been little progress made towards confirming these relationships. As a symptom of mercury poisoning[ edit ] Excessive shyness, embarrassment, self-consciousness and timidity, social-phobia and lack of self-confidence are also components of erethismwhich is a symptom complex that appears in cases of mercury poisoning.
Prenatal development[ edit ] The prevalence of shyness in some children can be linked to day length during pregnancyparticularly during the midpoint of prenatal development.
The longitudinal survey data included measurements of shyness on a five-point scale based on interviews with the families being surveyed, and children in the top 25th percentile of shyness scores were identified.
The data revealed a significant co-variance between the children who presented as being consistently shy over a two-year period, and shorter day length during their mid-prenatal development period.
Findings suggest that those born at low birth weights are more likely to be shy, risk-aversive and cautious compared to those born at normal birth weights.
These results do not however imply a cause-and-effect relationship. Shy people avoid the objects of their apprehension in order to keep from feeling uncomfortable and inept; thus, the situations remain unfamiliar and the shyness perpetuates itself. Shyness may fade with time; e. This often occurs by adolescence or young adulthood generally around the age of In some cases, though, it may become an integrated, lifelong character trait.
Longitudinal data suggests that the three different personality types evident in infancy easy, slow-to-warm-up, and difficult tend to change as children mature.
Extreme traits become less pronounced, and personalities evolve in predictable patterns over time. What has been proven to remain constant is the tendency to internalize or externalize problems. Shyness can also be seen as an academic determinant. It has been determined that there is a negative relationship between shyness and classroom performance.
As the shyness of an individual increased, classroom performance was seen to decrease.Studies on the biological basis of shyness have shown that shyness in adults can often be traced as far back as the age of three.
A Harvard study of two-year olds showed that, even at that age, widely different personality types can be recognized: roughly 25 percent of children are bold, sociable, and spontaneous regardless of the novelty of the . DENISE DANIELS AND ROBERT PLOMIN Table 1 Relationship Between Infant Shyness at 12 and 24 Months and Maternal Introversion-Extroversion Dimensions for .
Temperamental shyness is a risk factor for behavioral and affective problems, as well as more severe psychological problems. This article focuses on the phenomenon of shyness by reviewing its subtypes, psychosocial correlates, and efficacious treatment interventions.
A discussion of Allan Schore's video lecture on the neuro-psychology of attachment, and how failures of attunement between mother and child permanently alter the development of the infant's brain.
With the first unified theory of guilt, shame, and anxiety, this pioneering psychiatrist and critic of psychiatric diagnoses and drugs examines the causes and effects of psychological and emotional suffering from the perspective of biological evolution, child .
Aas, H., Klepp, K., Laberg, J.
C., & Aaro, L. E. (). Predicting adolescents' intentions to drink alcohol: Outcome expectancies and self-efficacy.