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View abstract View article PDF The potential impacts of climate change on crop productivity are of widespread interest to those concerned with addressing climate change and improving global food security.
Two common approaches to assess these impacts are process-based simulation models, which attempt to represent key dynamic processes affecting crop yields, and statistical models, which estimate functional relationships between historical observations of weather and yields.
Examples of both approaches are increasingly found in the scientific literature, although often published in different disciplinary journals. Here we compare published sensitivities to changes in temperature, precipitation, carbon dioxide CO 2and ozone from each approach for the subset of crops, locations, and climate scenarios for which both have been applied.
For precipitation, there are many reasons why estimates could be expected to differ, but few estimates exist to develop robust comparisons, and precipitation changes are rarely the dominant factor for predicting impacts given the prominent role of temperature, CO 2, and ozone changes.
A common difference between process-based and statistical studies is that the former tend to include the effects of CO 2 increases that accompany warming, whereas statistical models typically do not. At the same time, those who fund or use crop model projections should understand that in the short-term, both approaches when done well are likely to provide similar estimates of warming impacts, with statistical models generally requiring fewer resources to produce robust estimates, especially when applied to crops beyond the major grains.Nitrogen Cycle, South Africa, Nitrogen Fixation, Proterozoic Perturbation of the marine nitrogen cycle during the Late Ordovician glaciation and mass extinction The Late Ordovician was a critical interval in geologic history, during which both the biosphere and marine environments underwent severe perturbations, including one of the 'Big Five.
Back to Home-Built Nitrogen (N2) Laser Sub-Table of Contents. Commercial N2 Lasers SRS Model NL Nitrogen Laser The NL is a small self-contained pulsed N2 laser manufactured by Stanford Research regardbouddhiste.comte specifications as well as the operation manual may be accessed via links from the NL - Nitrogen Laser Product Page.
(If this link should die, search for "nitrogen laser". List of Awards, Papers, Presentations, and Other Public Education for Nitrogen Reduction Strategies Study 2 Last Updated 12/7/ Date Organization Title By. The conversions are obtained following: Research Report to the California Wheat Commission Calibrating In-field Diagnostic Tools to Improve Nitrogen Management for High Yield and High Protein Wheat in the Sacramento Valley.
Research Paper on Nitrogen July 28, writer Research Papers 0 Nitrogen is an element of Group 15 (by the outdated classification – the main subgroup of the fifth group) in the second period of the periodic table of chemical elements, with atomic number 7. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard.