Who or what is to blame

Commonly referred to as careless driving, driving without due care and attention is legally defined as:

Who or what is to blame

To begin, note that almost all philosophical discussions of blame ignore or mention only to set aside the form of blame sometimes characterized as causal or explanatory responsibility Kenner ; Hart ; Beardsley But just what the relation is between causal blame and interpersonal blame is an important question that has not been well-explored.

Nevertheless, in this entry the focus will be on the latter form of blame, which is a response to moral agents on the basis of their wrong, bad, or otherwise objectionable actions, attitudes, or characters. Consider three of these possible ways.

First, we could categorize theories of blame according to the content of blaming attitudes.

Who or what is to blame

On this way of dividing up things, the view put forth by Pamela Hieronymi —which holds that the force of blame is located in judgments of ill will—would be categorized with that of R.

Alternatively, we could categorize theories of blame according to those psychological states or dispositions that are thought to constitute blame. A third way might instead focus on objects of blaming attitudes and behaviors. Is blame directed exclusively at actions? Or can it instead be directed at attitudes, including beliefs, as in the case of epistemic blame see, e.

Of course, any scheme for categorizing theories has its advantages and disadvantages, and by selecting one scheme over the other, one necessarily emphasizes certain aspects of blame while ignoring other aspects of blame that might be equally important.

Nevertheless, the taxonomy to follow is consonant with much of the literature in classifying theories according to the activity or mental state that is thought to constitute blame.

According to this way of carving things up, we get four categories: One of the earliest cognitive theories of blame is due to J.

Smartwho develops his analysis of blame indirectly, since he begins by distinguishing between praise and dispraise rather than with the more natural distinction between praise and blame. According to Smart, to praise or dispraise an individual is simply to grade them as a member of a particular kind.

And as Smart says, this sort of grading is no different than the sort of grading involved in judging one apple to be better than the others at the supermarket. Crucially, Smart notes that though you might dispraise a young philosopher for their poor writing in a letter of recommendation, you are not thereby blaming them for it.

Thus for Smart, blame is distinct from dispraise. Blame, then, is a negative evaluative judgment that implies responsibility.

Like Smart, Watson recognizes that it is possible to make such a judgment dispassionately. Thus, on the grading and evaluative theories of blame developed by Smart and Watson, there is nothing about blame that requires a blamer to be emotionally exercised in any way.

However, unlike Smart—who identifies blame with a form of grading that implies moral responsibility—Watson does not take aretaic blame to be a general analysis of blame. Rather, for Watson, aretaic blame is just one way among many that we blame others for their actions.

But what sort of evaluative judgment will do? This allows cognitive theories to explain the special force of blame. After all, as T. Michael Zimmerman and Ishtiyaque Haji make this point more vividly when they argue that to blame someone is to judge that in virtue of their attitudes, actions, or character, they have a stain on their moral self or a mark against their moral ledger.

One need not endorse the idea of an actual moral ledger in order to hold a cognitive theory of blame. Pamela Hieronymifor example, articulates a cognitive account of blame, where the judgment in question is a judgment that the blamed agent has shown the blamer or another ill will.Aug 15,  · WASHINGTON — President Trump reverted Tuesday to blaming both sides for the deadly violence in Charlottesville, Va., and at one point questioned whether .

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If you concede that you are at least partially to blame for an incident, it follows that you will be convicted and in those circumstances the penalty will be reduced if you plead guilty at the first opportunity.

These promotions will be applied to this item: Some promotions may be combined; others are not eligible to be combined with other offers. For details, please see the Terms & . From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English blame blame 1 / bleɪm / S2 W3 verb [transitive] 1 BLAME to say or think that someone or something is responsible for something bad Don’t blame me – it’s not my fault.

Synonyms for blame at regardbouddhiste.com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions.

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Find descriptive alternatives for blame. Blame is a reaction to something of negative normative significance about someone or their behavior. A paradigm case, perhaps, would be when one person wrongs another, and the latter responds with resentment and a verbal rebuke, but of course we also blame others for their attitudes and characters (see, e.g., Smith ).

Blame | Definition of Blame by Merriam-Webster